How BuildStream uses OSTree

Note: In version 1.2, BuildStream stopped using OSTree to cache artifacts. It now uses a generic “Content Addressable Storage” system, implemented internally but designed to be compatible with Bazel and any other tool which supports the Remote Execution API. I’ve updated this article accordingly.

I’ve been asked a few times about the relationship between BuildStream and OSTree. The answer is a bit complicated so I decided to answer the question here.

OSTree is a content-addressed content store, inspired in many ways by Git but optimized for storing trees of binary files rather than trees of text files.

BuildStream is an integration tool which deals with trees of binary files.

I’m deliberately using the abstract term “trees of binary files” here because neither BuildStream or OSTree limit themselves to a particular use case. BuildStream itself uses the term “artifact” to describe the output of a build job and in practice this could be the set of development headers and documentation for library, a package file such as a .deb or .rpm, a filesystem for a whole operating system, a bootable VM disk image, or whatever else.

Anyway let’s get to the point! There are actually four two ways that BuildStream uses OSTree.

The `ostree` source plugin

The `ostree` source plugin allows pulling arbitrary data from a remote OSTree repository. It is normally used with an `import` element as a way of importing prebuilt binaries into a build pipeline. For example BuildStream’s integration tests currently run on top of the Freedesktop SDK binaries (which were originally intended for use with Flatpak applications but are equally useful as a generic platform runtime). The gnome-build-meta project uses this mechanism to import a prebuilt Debian base image, which is currently manually pushed to an OSTree repo (this is a temporary measure, in future we want to base gnome-build-meta on top of the upcoming Freedesktop SDK 1.8 instead).

It’s also possible to import binaries using the `tar` and `local` source types of course, and you can even use the `git` or `bzr` plugins for this if you really get off on using the wrong tools for the wrong job.

In future we will likely add other source plugins for importing binaries, for example from the Docker Registry and perhaps using casync.

Storing artifacts locally

Once a build has completed, BuildStream needs to store the results somewhere locally. The results go in the exciting-sounding “local artifact cache”, which is usually located inside your home directory at ​~/.cache/buildstream/artifacts.

BuildStream 1.0 used OSTree to store artifacts. BuildStream 1.2 and later use a generic Content Addressed Storage implementation.

Storing artifacts remotely

As a way of saving everyone from building the same things, BuildStream supports downloading prebuilt artifacts from a remote cache.

BuildStream 1.0 used OSTree for remote storage. BuildStream 1.2 and later use the same CAS service that is used for local storage.

Pushing and pulling artifacts

BuildStream 1.2 and later use the CAS protocol from the Remote Execution API to transfer artifacts. This protocol is implemented using GRPC.

Indirect uses of OSTree

It may be that you also end up deploying stuff into an OSTree repository somewhere. BuildStream itself is only interested with building and integrating your project — once that is done you run `bst checkout` and are rewarded with a tree of files on your local machine. What if, let’s say, your project aims to build a Flatpak application?

Flatpak actually uses OSTree as well and so your deployment step may involve committing those files into yet another OSTree repo ready for Flatpak to run them. (This can be a bit long winded at present so there will likely be some better integration appearing here at some point).

So, is anywhere safe from the rise of OSTree or is it going to take over completely? Something you might not know about me is that I grew up outside a town in north Shropshire called Oswestry. Is that a coincidence? I can’t say.

 

Oswestry

Oswestry, from Wikipedia.

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About Sam Thursfield

Who's that kid in the back of the room? He's setting all his papers on fire! Where did he get that crazy smile? We all think he's really weird.
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